As opposed to the A-research, the commissioned research or B-research does not need to be open. In such cases, it can consist of R&D projects that are financed by an individual company that wants the sole right to the results, initially at least. However, the commissioned research is also often open and is instead characterised by the project being more short-term and having a higher degree of development applied. This research has sometimes been of considerable volume. Examples are research into leach mechanisms and injection material for Swedish nuclear handling, industrial residual products for different companies, carbon dioxide absorption in concrete for different cement companies, utilisation of ultrafine filler in concrete for The Swedish Energy Agency, development of design methods for concrete pavements and concrete block pavement for The Swedish Road Administration, the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, Cementa and The Swedish Concrete Block Pavement Association.